Evolution of Porsche 911: Part One

Porsche 911

The birth of Porsche 911

The Porsche 911 is a top-notch sports car made by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany.

It is among the most famous and most distinctive sports cars the world has ever seen. It is also famous for being durable and reliable as well.

In mechanical terms, the Porsche 911 was notable for its rear-engine rear-wheel-drive platform.

The Porsche 911 was favored by many for track racing as well as rallying. Porsche and many privateers are using Porsche 911 for racing on paved surfaces as well as on loose surfaces.

The Porsche 911 is often referred as the most successful competition car ever.

When considering its variants, such as the 935 which ended up winning 24 hours of Le Mans, one of the most demanding endurance racing events, and many major sports events.

The Porsche 911 was developed as a much powerful, larger, easy to live with, successor to the Porsche 356.

The Porsche 356 was an evolution of Type 64, the first-ever prototype built by Ferdinand Porsche which was based on the Volkswagen Beetle chassis and mechanical components.

1939 Porsche Type 64 front

Volkswagen Beetle, a wretched, awful, miserable, slow, ugly, unimaginative, noisy piece of misery, and probably the worst attempt at a people’s car, which wasn’t offered to people and was kept for the use of the government until nearly a decade has passed from its inception. The Beetle however became the lifeblood of people in the developing part of the world, because it was cheaper, easier to fix, reliable, and costs pennies to maintain. A Beetle could easily withstand decades of wear and tear, and if the owner takes care of it regularly, it will last few generations. 

Three Type 64 cars were built for the 1930 Berlin to Rome race, but these cars never saw any competition due to the event being canceled. These three cars were then used by the Porsche family. One of these was destroyed during WW2. The remaining two were used by the Porsche family and eventually one was put in storage.

Porsche Type 64 rear

American soldiers found the one that was put in the storage, cut the roof off, and took it on countless joyrides until the engine gave in. Rather than trying to fix it, they simply scrapped it.

The Porsche Type 64 owned by Ferdinand Porsche was sold to an Austrian motorcycle racer called Otto Mathe, who then went on to win the Alpine Rally in 1950.

The scrapped Type 64 was also restored and put on display at a museum.

However, after the war, Ferdinand Porsche sitting on his Volkswagen Beetle convertible and it was the car that influenced Ferdinand Porsche to put a big engine on a small lighter car to make it more fun, which led to the development of the first prototypes of the Porsche 356 cars in 1948.

1959 Porsche 356 Cabriolet
1962 Porsche 356
Porsche 356 Carrera

The Porsche 356 was well received by racing enthusiasts and it won many racing events in its day, by 1965, more than 70,000 units were sold to the public and Porsche ended up being one of the biggest names in the European performance car market.

1955 – 1965 Porsche 356

The Porsche 911 was developed as a more powerful, comfortable, practical, easy to live with successor without compromising the spirit of a thoroughbred sports car to replace the well-received yet aging Porsche 356 which has been in production for years with mild changes.

1959 Porsche 754 T7 Prototype

The car was unveiled at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1963. It was originally known as the Porsche 901, a reference to its internal project number.

Porsche 901
Porsche 901
Porsche 901 factory demonstrator
Porsche 901 factory demonstrator

Peugeot pointed out that in France it had exclusive rights to car names formed by three digits with a zero in the middle, so Porsche’s decision to name its car as 901 would end up in a legal battle with Peugeot if they do not change the name at least in the French market.

1964 – 1965 Porsche 901 and 902

Rather than selling the new car with another name in France, Porsche decided to change the name to 911.

The production started in 1963 and the first examples were available for sale as 1964 model year cars.

1964 Porsche 911 2.0 Coupe
1964 Porsche 911 2.0 Coupe

The first-ever Porsche 911 cars had an air-cooled, rear-mounted 2.0 liter flat-six boxer engine. This boxer engine was similar to the Porsche 356’s four-cylinder 1.6-liter unit.

The flat-six engine was mated to a five-speed manual Type 901 transmission unit.

Following the 356 tradition, the Porsche 911 also featured a 2 + 2 seating layout, but the rear seats were too small and didn’t provide ample headroom or legroom.

The styling and designing of the new body were done mainly by Ferdinand “Butzi” Porsche, son of Ferdinand “Ferry” Porsche. Erwin Komenda, the head of the Porsche car body construction department was also actively engaged in the project throughout the designing and development stage.

The Porsche 356 production ended in 1965, even though there was a huge demand for it in the USA, the main market for Porsche outside Germany. Realizing the demand for a four-cylinder engine-powered car in the US market, a slightly detuned variant of the Porsche 911 was introduced the same year as its replacement. This new variant was known as the Porsche 912.

1965 Porsche 911
1965 Porsche 911
1965 PORSCHE 911 2.5 SR front
1965 PORSCHE 911 2.5 SR front
1965 PORSCHE 911 2.5 SR interior
1965 PORSCHE 911 2.5 SR interior
1965 PORSCHE 911 2.5 SR
1965 PORSCHE 911 2.5 SR

Porsche 912 was powered with the four-cylinder 1.6-liter engine from the Porsche 356. The engine power was rated at 90 horsepower.

1965 Porsche 912
1965 Porsche 912

In 1967, Porsche unveiled a more powerful 911S. This car featured an engine specifically designed for Porsche 904 and Porsche 906 track cars. Another distinctive feature was the lightweight alloy wheels from Fuchs. These alloys had an iconic five-leaf design. The power delivery of this car was rated at 210 horsepower.

1966 Vic Elford Porsche 911
1966 Porsche 911
1967 Porsche 911 engine
1967 Porsche 911 engine

In the same year, a Targa version of the Porsche 911 was unveiled. A stainless steel roll bar was added as a piece of standard safety equipment. This was mainly to comply with U.S National Highway Safety regulations.

A removable roof panel and a removable plastic rear window were also included as standard.

1968 Porsche 911 S coupe
1968 Porsche 911 S coupe

From 1968 model year onwards, a removable glass window was offered alongside the plastic one.

Targa name was a reference to the Targa Florio open-top sports car endurance racing event held in Sicily in which Porsche scored seven victories since 1956, and went on to score four more before the discontinuation in 1973.

In the last Targa Florio event, Porsche 911 Carrera RS won against prototypes by Ferrari and Alfa Romeo.

Jean Claude Killy behind the wheels of a Porsche 911 S at 1967 Targa Florio
Jean Claude Killy behind the wheels of a Porsche 911 S at 1967 Targa Florio

In 1967, a Porsche 911T variant was unveiled to replace the Porsche 912. Porsche 911T delivered 130 horsepower. Porsche 911T was renamed as the Porsche 911L.

1967 Porsche 911S Targa and 1968 Porsche 911 R

1967 Porsche 911R
1967 Porsche 911R
1967 Porsche 911R
1967 Porsche 911R
1967 Porsche 911R rear
1967 Porsche 911R rear

The Porsche 911R, a lightweight, high-performance variant of the Porsche 911 was unveiled in the same year.  Porsche 911R featured aluminum doors, a magnesium crankcase, twin-spark cylinder heads, etc. The power output of the engine was 210 horsepower.

Only 20 units of Porsche 911R were made.

1969 Porsche 911
1969 Porsche 911

In 1969, a Porsche 911 with a slightly longer floor panel and the wheelbase was introduced. These were known as the B series. The B series had an 89.3-inch wheelbase instead of the original 87 inches. This was done to fix the nervous handling at higher speeds.

Fuel injection was introduced for the Porsche 911S, and Porsche 911E.

Porsche 911 E
Porsche 911 E

Porsche 911E is a semi-automatic Sportomatic model and has a torque converter, automatic clutch, and a conventional four-speed manual transmission unit.

Porsche B17 Concept

1969 Porsche 911 B17 Pininfarina
1969 Porsche 911 B17 Pininfarina

The Porsche 911 B17 is a concept car designed by Pininfarina. This Pininfarina-designed car featured a 7.5-inch longer wheelbase. This resulted in added weight and the car now weighed almost 1100kg.

1969 – 1971 C and D series

1970 Porsche 911 Targa
1970 Porsche 911 Targa

For the 1970 model year, the engines of all Porsche 911 variants were increased to 2.2 liter.

This resulted in higher power outputs. The Porsche 911T now packed 123 horsepower, Porsche 911E packed 153 horsepower, and the Porsche 911S delivered 180 horsepower.

The Porsche 912 was discontinued and was replaced with a Porsche 914, a Targa top car with either flat-four or flat-six engines.

Porsche 911 C 20 Prototype

1970 Porsche 911 C20 Concept
1970 Porsche 911 C20 Concept

The Porsche 911 C20 is a prototype based on the Porsche 911 but had 13.6 inches of extra overall length over the stock car. It was powered with the 180 horsepower engine from Porsche 911S to accommodate the extra weight.

1971 – 1973 E and F series

1973 Porsche 911 2.4
1973 Porsche 911 2.4

The  911T, 911E, 911S variants got a new 2.34-liter flat-six engine for the E and F series. This new engine was known as a 2.4-liter engine but it had a displacement of 2.34 liters.

The 2.34-liter flat-six engine was given mechanical fuel injection (MFI) in all markets.

911E now packed a healthy 160 horsepower and the 911S had 190 horsepower.

The 911T’s 2.34-liter flat-six was carbureted to deliver 130 horsepower in EU spec and 140 horsepower in US spec.  The US-spec variant of the Porsche 911T used MFI and that’s why it has 140 horsepower now.

 

1972 Porsche 911 T Targa
1972 Porsche 911 T Targa

From January 1973, 911T cars were given L-Jetronic continuous fuel injection (CIS). This CIS unit was developed by Bosch. 

To comply with higher power output and torque, all the 2.34 liter flat-six equipped cars were given all-new Type 915 transmission units. The Type 915 units were derived from Porsche 908 race car and replaced the originals dog-leg style first gear arrangement with a more traditional H pattern with first gear to the left and second gear underneath it.

The reason for this was due to the complaints Porsche got from their customers about how difficult it was to use dog-leg style shift to second gear for city driving.

However, some argued that it was due to Porsche’s desire to put the fifth gear outside the main transmission housing where it could be easily changed for different races.

The Sportomatic transmission was still available but only as a special order.

To address the complaints regarding the handling issues, Porsche took tremendous effort to improve the handling of the Porsche 911.

Porsche 911 normally aspirated engine
Porsche 911 normally aspirated engine

The unusual rear-engine placement resulted in most of the vehicle’s weight concentrated over the rear axle. And due to this, earlier Porsche 911 cars were prone to oversteer when driven at higher speed. An inexperienced driver could easily spin the car because of this.

To fix this problem, Porsche decided to relocate the oil tank from its position behind the rear wheel to in front of it. This also had the effect of moving the weight of almost 8.5 liters of oil from outside the wheelbase to inside, improving the weight distribution, thus improving the handling of the car. For the 1972 model year, Porsche installed an oil filler door on the right rear quarter panel to facilitate the filling of the tank, but this design was scrapped after only one year and the oil tank was relocated to its original position for the 1973 model year. The position of the fuel tank didn’t change until it was relocated within the wheelbase for the Porsche 964 models.

To improve the overall stability of the vehicle, the highest performing Porsche 911S got a discreet spoiler under the front bumper. The curb weight of the Porsche 911S was just 1050kg and the 190 horsepower output was enough to offer an excellent power to weight ratio.

Porsche 911S targa
Porsche 911S targa

The Porsche 911S is widely considered as one of the best classic sports cars of all time.

A new variant called Porsche 911ST was made in limited numbers. The Porsche 911ST was specifically developed for racing and was available with either a 2.47-liter or a 2.49-liter engine. The power output was rated at 266 horsepower at 8000rpm. These cars were given magnesium alloy wheels and aluminum body panels to keep the weight down, so the curb weight of the car was just 960kg.

Porsche 911ST had success at 1000km Nurburgring, Sebring 12 hours, Daytona six hours, Targa Florio endurance racing events.

1973 – 1974 Porsche Carrera RS

1972 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7
1972 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7

The Porsche Carrera RS models were valued by collectors and considered to be the greatest classic 911 variant of all time.

Porsche Carrera Rennsport (RS) was a reincarnation of the original Porsche 356 Carrera. The Porsche 356 Carrera was named after the racing victories in the Carrera Panamericana races in Mexico in the 1950s.

1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7
1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7

The Carrera RS was built to comply with FIA homologation requirements. Porsche used the 911S as the basis to build the Porsche Carrera RS.

The Carrera 2.7 RS came equipped with a 2.7 liter (164 cu)flat-six boxer engine with a 90 mm bore and 70.4mm stroke. The engine was then equipped with a Bosch mechanical fuel injection. The maximum power output of the engine was rated at 207 horsepower at 5100rpm. 

A revised and stiffened suspension, larger brakes, wider rear wheels were equipped to comply with the increased power and torque output of the engine.

A ducktail rear spoiler and rear wings were added to improve downforce.

1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7

Carrera RS in Touring spec had a curb weight of 1075kg. The Carrera RS Sport Lightweight had a curb weight of just 975kg.

Porsche 911 Carrera RS
Porsche 911 Carrera RS

The Carrera RS Sport Lightweight came with a thin gauge steel bodyshell, thinner glass panels, magnesium alloy wheels, etc.

A total of 1580 Porsche Carrera RS cars were made, exceeding the 500 cars required to be made and sold to the public to comply with FIA homologation requirements to compete in Group 4 racing events.

About 49 Porsche Carrera RSR cars were built with 2.8-liter flat-six boxer engines. These engines delivered an impressive 296 horsepower maximum output.

1973 Porsche 911 RSR
1973 Porsche 911 RSR
1973 Porsche 911 RSR Turbo
1973 Porsche 911 RSR Turbo

For the 1974 model year, Porsche introduced a Carrera RS 3.0 variant with mechanical fuel injection, increasing the power output from 207 horsepower to 227 horsepower.  It was almost twice the price of a Carrera 2.7 RS but offered many improvements to justify the hefty price tag.

1974 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Turbo 2.1
1974 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Turbo 2.1

The chassis of the Carrera RS 3.0 was similar to the chassis of the 1973 Carrera RSR and the brake system was from a Porsche 917, the track car Porsche used to win 1970 and 1971 24 hours of Le Mans events. 

1974 Porsche 911 RS3.0
1974 Porsche 911 RS3.0

The thin gauge metal plate panels and the body shell, stripped-down interior, magnesium alloy wheels, and thinner glass panels ended up decreasing the curb weight to just 900kg.

The Porsche Carrera RSR 3.0 and Carrera RSR Turno were produced in limited numbers for racing.

Porsche 911 3.0 RSR
Porsche 911 3.0 RSR

The Porsche Careera RSR Turbo became the runner up at the 24 hours of Le Mans In 1974.

1974 Martini Porsche 911 RSR
1974 Martini Porsche 911 RSR
1974 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Turbo 2.1 2
1974 Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Turbo 2.1 2

The 24 Hours of Le Mans is one of the most prestigious racing events and the endurance racing event was a very significant one for the automotive manufacturers. This win ended up convincing Porsche to keep its commitment to turbocharging technology.

1974 Porsche 911 RSR engine
1974 Porsche 911 RSR engine
1974 Porsche 911 RSR side
1974 Porsche 911 RSR side
1974 Porsche 911 RSR wheels
1974 Porsche 911 RSR wheels
1974 Porsche 911 RSR
1974 Porsche 911 RSR

1974 – 1977 G, H, I, and J series

1973 - 1989 Porsche 911 Carrera G-Model 2
1973 – 1989 Porsche 911 Carrera G-Model 2
1973 - 1989 Porsche 911 Carrera G-Model 1
1973 – 1989 Porsche 911 Carrera G-Model 1

1974 model year was known as the G series. Production of the G series was done from August 1973 to July 1974.

1975 model year was known as the H series. Production of the H series happened from August 1974 to July 1975.

1976 model year was known as the J series. Production of the J series happened from August 1975 to July 1976.

1977 model year was known as the K series. Production of the K series started in August 1976 and ended in July 1977.

1974 model year Porsche 911 saw many significant changes to meet the safety and emission regulations and requirements from the key markets around the world.

Porsche 911 front
Porsche 911 front
1975 Porsche 911
1975 Porsche 911

To comply with US Highway and safety regulations, Porsche had to equip its cars for the US market with new impact-absorbing bumpers. The US safety standard required the front bumper to absorb energy at a 5mph crash without deforming the shape of the bumper or damaging any safety-related components such as the headlights.

The engine displacement was increased to 2.69 liters to achieve higher torque levels. This engine was known as a 2.7-liter engine.

A K Jetronic CIS Bosch Fuel injection was added to the Porsche 911 and Porsche 911S as standard, without changing the narrow rear arches of the old 2.34-liter engine.

The 2.7 liter flat-six Boxer engine now generated 150 horsepower for the Porsche 911 and 173 horsepower for the Porsche 911S.

Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7
Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7

1975 model year H series didn’t see any significant changes.

1976 model year J series got reworked powertrains to deliver more performance.

The 2.7 liter flat-six boxer engine now generated 163 horsepower for the Porsche 911 and 175 horsepower for the Porsche 911S.

1974 – 1976 Carrera 2.7

1974 - 1975 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7
1974 – 1975 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7

 The Porsche Carrera 2.7 model was marketed for all European and other key markets except the US, was powered with a RS 911/85 flat-six Boxer engine with Bosch mechanical fuel injection system from 1973 Carrera RS. This engine delivered 210 horsepower. These were known as Carrera RS MFI

The Porsche Carrera 2.7 with mechanical fuel injection were made from 1974 to 1976. These were mechanically identical to the 1973 Carrera RS.

Porsche 911 Carrera 2.7 engine
Porsche 911 Carrera 2.7 engine

The Porsche Carrera 2.7 which was specifically made for US and North American markets were known as the Carrera 2.7 CIS.

The Porsche Carrera 2.7 CIS was also powered with the same 2.7-liter engine as the Porsche 911S, but the maximum power output was just 173 horsepower. The significantly lower power output was due to the low fuel compression ratio and the catalytic converters to comply with US emission standards.

The first Carrera 2.7 models featured the same welded-on rear RS flares but were later switched to SC stamped style rear flares during the mid-1974 model year.

The Carrera 2.7 weighed just 1075kg, the same weight as the 1973 Carrera RS Touring.

 The Ducktail rear spoiler which was first introduced back in 1973 Carrera RS, was also available for the 1974 model. The ducktail spoiler was included as a standard feature for the US-spec Carrera.

The Ducktail rear spoiler was available as an option for all other markets except for the German market, where it had been outlawed by the TUV road homologation department.

To address this issue, Porsche introduced a new whitetail rear spoiler, which was available as an option on the 1974 and 1974 Carrera 2.7 models and the new Porsche 930 Turbo.

For the 1976 model year, the Carrera 2.7 was replaced by the Carrera 3.0.

However, due to the high demand for Carrera 2.7 cars, a special limited production run of 113 units of 1976 Porsche Carrera 2.7 MFI coupes were built solely for the German market. These were powered with the 911/83 RS engine.

Porsche 911 carrera Targa
Porsche 911 carrera Targa

An additional 20 units of narrow-bodied 1976 Carrera 2.7 Targa MFI cars were made for the Belgian Gendarmerie.

1976 Carrera 2.7 MFI were the last mechanically fuel-injected cars produced by the Porsche. These were the last Carreras to feature the 1973 RS 911/83 RS engine as well. 

 1976 Porsche 912E

Porsche 912E 1.6Litre Boxer
Porsche 912E 1.6Litre Boxer

The Porsche 912E was produced for the US market with a four-cylinder engine and was similar to the original Porsche 912 which was last produced in 1969.

The reason to revive the Porsche 912E was due to the demand from the US market for a fuel-efficient and fun-to-drive car. It was based on the I series chassis and was powered by the Volkswagen 2.0 engine which was used in the 1973 to 1975 Porsche 914 cars.

2099 Porsche 912E cars were made in 1976. It was replaced with a front-engine Porsche 924 for the 1977 model year. 

1976 – 1977 Porsche Carrera 3.0

Porsche 911 Carrera 3.0 Targa
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.0 Targa
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.0 Targa rear
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.0 Targa rear

Porsche introduced the Carrera 3.0 for the 1976 model year. Carrera 2.0 featured wide rear flares and a variety of luxurious options. A whaletail spoiler was also available as an option.

The Carrera 3.0 wasn’t available in the US and North American markets.

The Carrera 3.0 is equipped with a variation of the 3.0 liter flat-six Boxer engine which powered Porsche 930 Turbo. Carrera 3.0 doesn’t feature a turbocharger either.

This 930/02 engine delivered 200 horsepower in comparison to Carrera 2.7 MFI’s 210 horsepower.

Carrera 3.0 was available with a four-speed or five-speed manual gearbox and three-speed automatic transmission.

The crankcase and the gearbox housing were made of aluminum instead of magnesium to improve reliability. Magnesium crankcases were known for thermal expansion or contraction due to the increased engine displacement which resulted in excess heat generation.

The new engine features bigger intake and exhaust valves, now producing greater torque to allow the Carrera 3.0 to achieve the same performance as the previous Carrera 2.7.

1977 Porsche 911 Carrera 3.0 Targa
1977 Porsche 911 Carrera 3.0 Targa

The 0-60mph time was 6.1 seconds and 0-124mph was achieved in 27 seconds.

Carrera 2.7 and Carrera 3.0 was capable of achieving a top speed of 147mph.

The curb weight of the car was 1120kg, a 45 kg weight gain.

The Porsche 911 Carrera 3.0 was produced in Targa and coupe variants. A total of 2566 coupes and 1125 Targa cars were made. 3691 of these were manual and 58 were automatic.

1975 – 1977 Porsche 930 Turbo and Porsche Turbo Carrera 3.0 liter

Porsche 911 Turbo
Porsche 911 Turbo
1976 Porsche 911 Turbo
1976 Porsche 911 Turbo
1976 Porsche 911 Turbo 3.0
1976 Porsche 911 Turbo 3.0

For the 1975 model year, Porsche unveiled the first production turbocharged 911. This was named the Porsche 930 Turbo. This was a reference to the internal type number, 930.

In Europe, this car was marketed as Porsche 930 Turbo. In the US and North American markets, this was marketed as Porsche 930 Turbo Carrera.

The 930 featured a body shape with incorporated wide wheel arches to house the wide 205/50R 15 and 225/50R 15 Pirelli P7 tires.

A larger rear spoiler known as the whale tail on the early cars, modified from the original 1974 design, was fitted to improve downforce and overall stability of the car at higher speeds.

Porsche 911 Whaletail
Porsche 911 Whaletail
Porsche 911 Whaletail front
Porsche 911 Whaletail front

Porsche 930 Turbo and Porsche 930 Turbo Carrera were equipped with a 3.0 liter flat-six boxer engine and a four-speed manual transmission. The maximum power output of the car was rated at 260 horsepower.

The first four hundred cars were qualified for the FIA Group 4 competition.

Porsche 911 GT1 turbo

1975 – 1989 Porsche 930 Turbo

1976 Porsche 934

1976 Porsche 934 Le Mans
1976 Porsche 934 Le Mans
Porsche 934 at Becketts Corner
Porsche 934 at Becketts Corner

The Porsche 934 was actually a race-ready variant of the Porsche 930 Turbo. It was specifically developed to compete in the 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance racing. This was Porsche’s answer for the BMW 3.0 CSL Batmobile.

1976 Porsche 934 RSR Turbo
1976 Porsche 934 RSR Turbo
1976 Porsche 934
1976 Porsche 934
1978 Porsche 934 Silverstone
1978 Porsche 934 Silverstone

1976 – 1980 Porsche 935

Porsche 935 Coupé
Porsche 935 Coupé
1977 Martini Porsche 935
1977 Martini Porsche 935

The Porsche 935 evolved from the Porsche 934. This car featured a slanted nose and a different front fascia to improve aerodynamics. This car delivered more than 500 horsepower and competed in the 1976 racing season in the hands of a factory racing team.

This car ended up winning the World Championship title.

1976 Porsche 935 radiator
1976 Porsche 935 radiator

Porsche 935 was produced in limited numbers for the privateers and racing teams. Some of these privateers then went on to win 24 hours of Le Mans in 1979.

FIA and IMSA rules and regulations changed for the 1980 season, thus resulting in the retirement of Porsche 935.   

 1978 – 1989 Porsche 930 Turbo 3.3 Liter

1978 Porsche 930 Turbo LM 3.3L
1978 Porsche 930 Turbo LM 3.3L

For the 1978 model year, Porsche updated the Porsche 930. The engine displacement was increased further and now it was a 3.3 liter turbocharged flat-six Boxer engine. This power plant was then mated to a four-speed manual transmission unit. The total power output was rated at 300 horsepower.

1978 Porsche 930 Turbo LM 3.3L rear
1978 Porsche 930 Turbo LM 3.3L rear

To reduce the excess heat caused by the larger displacement of the engine and the turbocharging unit, an intercooler system was added. To fit it an all-new tea tray-designed tail spoiler was added instead of the earlier whale tail spoiler.

Porsche marketed the car in all markets without Carrera’s nameplate and was simply known as the Porsche 930 Turbo.

The larger engine displacement helped to reduce some of the turbo lag experience in earlier models.

For the 1989 model year, a five-speed manual transmission was available as an option.

For the 1990 model year, the Porsche 930 was replaced with a Porsche 964 Turbo. Porsche 964 was equipped with the same engine but featured a more modern turbocharging and intercooling system.

1978 – 1983 Porsche 911 SC

1975 Porsche 911 SC Targa
1975 Porsche 911 SC Targa

The Porsche 911SC was unveiled by Porsche for the 1978 model year. SC meant Super Carrera and this was the first time Porsche decided to reintroduced the SC moniker since the Porsche 356SC.

However, the Porsche 911SC wasn’t given a detuned Carrera version of it.

The Porsche 911SC was equipped with a 3.0-liter aluminum engine with a Bosch K Jetronic fuel injection. This engine was then mated to type 915 five-speed manual transmission.

The maximum power output of the powertrain was rated at 180 horsepower and it was reworked again to deliver 188 horsepower.

In 1981, the engine was reworked again and now it delivered 201 horsepower.

Porsche 911 SC front
Porsche 911 SC front
Porsche 911 SC
Porsche 911 SC

The decision to adopt an aluminum engine was to improve case reliability, which couldn’t be achieved with magnesium.

A cabriolet version of the Porsche 911SC was unveiled at the Frankfurt Motor Show.

Porsche 911 SC Targa
Porsche 911 SC Targa

This version featured a four wheel drive layout, but this feature was dropped in the production version.

The first production Porsche 911SC Cabriolet was debuted in late 1982 as a 1983 model.

Porsche 911SC cabriolet was the first Porsche cabriolet since the 356 of the mid-1960s.

A total of 4214 cabriolets were sold in 1983 despite the premium price in comparison to the Targa top variant.

Due to the warm reception and sales success, Porsche still offers the cabriolet versions of the 911.

In 1979, Porsche had plans to replace the Porsche 911 with the new Porsche 928, the flagship model of the Porsche.

But, the strong demand and financial success of the 911 program ended up convincing Porsche not to terminate the program and to continue offering it alongside other models such as the Porsche 928 and Porsche 944. 

Peter Werner Schutz, the CEO of Porsche AG from 1981 to 1987 was the one who decided to keep the 911 in the production line

The Porsche 911SC was the first to get a new life under the revised strategy.

More than 58,914 Porsche 911SC cars were sold.

Henry Toivonen drove a Porsche 911SC RS at the Finnish 1000 lakes rally event in 1984. 

1984 Porsche Henri Toivonen (2)
1984 Porsche Henri Toivonen (2)
1983 Porsche 911 SC RS
1983 Porsche 911 SC RS

1984 – 1989 Porsche Carrera 3.2

Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera
Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera

The Porsche 911SC series was replaced with the Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera. This was the first time Porsche reviving the Carrera name since 1977.

This is also the last iteration of the original 911 series. All the subsequent models feature a new body styling, new brakes, electronics, and suspension technologies.

A newer higher displacement engine, a 3.2 liter horizontally opposed flat-six was produced. Porsche claimed at the time that this new engine was 80% all new.

1988 Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Liter Motor
1988 Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Liter Motor

The higher displacement of 3.16 liters (universally known as 3.2 liters) was achieved by using a 95mm bore from previous SC models, a 74.4 mm stroke from the 1978 Turbo 3.3 crankshaft. Higher domed pistons increased the compression ratio from 9.8 to 10.3:1 for EU spec models and 9.5:1 for US Spec models.

A new inlet manifold and an exhaust system were fitted.

The type 915 transmission unit was carried over from the 911SC series until the end of 1987. In 1987, the old and outdated Type 915 transmission was replaced with a Getrag G 50 five-speed manual gearbox with BorgWarner synchronizers.

This transmission was slightly heavier and featured a hydraulically operated clutch. 

The power delivery was now 207 horsepower at 5900 for the US-spec cars and 234 horsepower at 5900rpm for EU spec cars.

British Autocar magazine tested an EU spec Porsche Carrera 3.2 and found out that it is capable of achieving 0-60mph in 5.4 seconds in comparison to the official 6.1 seconds. The top speed was a respectable 150mph. 

The official 0-60mph time for the US spec Carrera 3.2 was 6.3 seconds.

The brake discs were increased in size to aid in more effective heat dissipation and improved oil-fed chain tensioners were fitted to the engine.

To improve the cooling, a finned cooler replaced the serpentine lines in the front passenger fender well. This was further improved in 1987 with the addition of a thermostatically controlled fan.

To improve driving refinement and engine reliability, an upgraded fuel and ignition control components were added to an L Jetronic with Bosch Motronic 2 Digital Motor Electronics system.

This improved the fuel efficiency due to the DME providing petrol cut off on the overrun.

Porsche Carrera 3.2 was available as a coupe, Targa, and as a cabriolet.

Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Cabriolet
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 CabrioletPorsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Cabriolet
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Cabriolet front
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Cabriolet front

The Carrera had several exterior changes that highlighted and distinguish itself from the Porsche 911SC. The front fog lights were integrated into the front valance was the main clue. Few cosmetic changes such as decals were added to the production model.

From October 1986, a fuel map and chip programming were added to further improve the power output of the engine.

Now the engine power output was rated at 217 horsepower at 5900rpm for the markets requiring strict emission regulations such as Germany and the USA.

From 1986 model year, a redesigned dashboard with larger air conditioning vents replaced the classic dashboard.

In 1984, Porsche introduced the Supersport variant. Porsche Carrera 3.2 Supersport featured wide wheel arches and the distinctive tea tray tail. The wide wheel arches and tea tray tail were distinctive to the Porsche 930 Turbo.

1985 Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2
1985 Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2

Porsche Carrera 3.2 Supersport came with a stiffer suspension system derived from the Porsche 930 Turbo. It also had improved and more powerful brakes, as well as wider wheels, to cope with the extra power output of the engine.

The Carrera 3.2 Supersport was well received in the US market. This was mainly due to the unavailability of the Porsche 930 Turbo which used to be a huge sales success in the US market.

1987 – 1989 Porsche Carrera Club Sport

Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera Club Sport
Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera Club Sport

Porsche unveiled a new prototype called the Carrera Club Sport.

Later that year, a Porsche 911 Club Sport Row was specially ordered by a Porsche racing driver and this car was inspired by the Carrera Culb Sport prototype on the track.

Porsche decided to run a limited production run of 340 Porsche 911 Club Sport cars. These were manufactured from 1987 to 1989. Porsche 911 Carrera Club Sport was aimed at the customers in need of a track-ready road-legal car.

The Porsche 911 Carrera Club Sport is a lightweight variant of the standard Carrera 3.2. This car was specifically developed for track racing and featured many engines and suspension modifications.

Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera Club Sport
Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera Club Sport

The Carrera Club Sport had a blueprinted engine with hollow intake valves, a higher rev limiter. Removal of all the electric power options such as sunroof, radio, and air conditioning.

To keep the weight down, the rear seat, sound insulation, rear wiper, door pocket lids, fog lamps, front hood locking mechanism, engine and luggage compartment lights, lockable wheel nuts, and rear lid Carrera logo were removed. All these reductions resulted in 70kg weight decrease.

However, two cars were made with air conditioning and one was made with a sunroof.

A “CS Club Sport” decal was added on the left front fender for all markets except UK spec cars.

All the cars featured an SP stamp on the crankcase and cylinder head.

The UK spec cars were finished in Grand Prix White with a red “Carrera CS” decal on each side of the car and unique red wheels.   

The Porsche 911 Carrera Club Sport, being a limited run model, was expensive. Despite the fewer creature comforts, stiffer suspension, and higher price tag, it was well-received by the club racing enthusiasts.

1986 Slantnose Porsche 930 S

Porsche 911 SC Cabriolet Slantnose
Porsche 911 SC Cabriolet Slantnose

In 1982, TAG Heuer co-owner Mansour Ojjeh commissioned Porsche to develop a new road-legal version of the Porsche 935. The production variant was based on the Porsche 930 body shell and was fitted with fabricated Porsche 935 body panels to give a distinctive look.

This one-off was then given a 3.3-liter turbocharged flat-six engine derived from the Porsche 934, suspension and brakes derived from the Porsche 935 to improve cornering and braking.

This car was then finished in Brilliant Red paint by the Porsche. BBS wheels were also fitted.

This one-off proved to be well-received among enthusiasts and due to the strong reception and requests from prospective buyers, Porsche decided to offer a similar car as a factory offering.

Porsche offered an all-new Flachbau or slant nose option for the Porsche 930 under the special order program from 1986 model year.

1982 Porsche 911 SC Turbo 3.3 Turbo
1982 Porsche 911 SC Turbo 3.3 Turbo

This option simply replaced the standard Porsche 911 front fascia with a Porsche 935 style slantnose. This new front fascia featured pop-up headlamps instead of bug eyes.

Each unit was handcrafted under the special order program by remodeling the front fenders.

Only 948 units were built and 160 of those were shipped to the US.

European spec models featured the 325 horsepower WLS performance kit as standard.

Due, to the improved aerodynamics, the car could accelerate from 0-60mph in 4.85 seconds with a top speed of 173mph (278 km/h).

1988 Porsche 911 Commemorative Edition

1988 Porsche 911 Commemorative edition
1988 Porsche 911 Commemorative edition

For the 1988 model year, Porsche produced 875 units of the Porsche 911 Commemorative Edition. The Commemorative Edition was available as a coupe, Targa, or as a convertible.

The reason to unveil the Porsche 911 Commemorative Edition was to celebrate the production of the 250,000th Porsche 911.

These cars featured a special diamond blue metallic paint with color-matched Fuchs wheels, front and rear spoilers, and interior carpets and leather.

These cars also featured Dr. Ferdinand Porsche’s signature embroidered on the seats in the headrest area.

Out of the 875 cars, 300 were imported to the US. (120 coupes, 100 cabriolets, and 80 targa tops.)

250 cars were sold in Germany, 50 in the UK. The rest were sold in markets around the world.

1989 25th Anniversary Special Edition

The 25the Anniversary Special Edition was unveiled from the 1989 model year. These cars featured a silk grey leather interior with black accent piping, silk grey velour carpeting, body-color Fuchs wheels, 6×16 in front and 8×16 in the rear. Stitched leather console with an outside temperature gauge, a CD/Cassette holder,  small bronze 25th Anniversary Special Edition badges.

A limited-slip differential and a short-shifting gear lever were added as standard.

Five hundred cars were made for the US market. 300 coupes and 200 cabriolets.

1989 Porsche 911 Speedster

Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Speedster prototype
Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Speedster prototype

The  Porsche 911 Speedster was a low roof variant of the Cabriolet. This was a reference to the 1950s Porsche 356 Speedster. It was a two-seat convertible with a low swept windshield.

A limited production run of 2104 units from January 1989 to July 1989 happened.

1989 Porsche 911 Speedster
1989 Porsche 911 Speedster
PORSCHE 911 SPEEDSTER
PORSCHE 911 SPEEDSTER
PORSCHE 911 SPEEDSTER rear
PORSCHE 911 SPEEDSTER rear

The Porsche 911 Speedster featured a narrow body style and also the Turbo look with wider wheel arches. Only 171 narrow-body units were made.

The Porsche 911 Speedster was designed by Helmuth Bott in 1983 but wasn’t manufactured until 1989. 

The total production of the Porsche 911 3.2 Carrera series were 76,473 cars. 35,670 coupes, 19,987 cabriolets, and 18,468 targa tops.

A fountain of youth, http://newsroom.porsche.com/en/products/a-fountain-of-youth-for-classic-cars-10719.html   a press release by Porsche in 2014, claimed that an estimated 150,000 cars of the 1964 to 1989 are still on the road at that date and time.

 

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *